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Jihad, Psycho-Religio Aspects

Endeavour Peace’ Through Dialogue, Even if Agree to Disagree

Summary from an essay entitled

The Psychological & Religious Aspect of Countering Jihad

A friendly interfaith dialogue in the form of views by Dr. Asher Eder, a Jewish Scholar and comments by Abujak [AftabKhan]. The views of Dr. Asher Eder are in normal font while comments by Abujak  is in bold letters.

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The Psychological/Religious Aspect of Countering Jihad

In Islam, the term Jihad besides fighting one’s own evil inclinations, can also have the meaning of waging a “Holy War” against an enemy of Islam and/or Muslim peoples or nations.

Comments:

What is Meant by ‘Jihad’? Jihad is a very important doctrine of Islam, which lays down guidelines and principles, to be adhered by a Muslim while striving against various forms of resistance, internal (against selfish desires and evil temptations) or external for the cause of God. Muslims are required to make persistent effort to serve the cause of Islam. That effort, whatever its future, falls within the meaning of the term “Jihad for the cause of God”. Jihad is derived from the Arabic word ‘Juhd’, which means “effort”. The verb Jahida means ‘to be tried as a result of exerting an effort or energy; making endeavor; so Jihad is to contend with difficulties and to work continually. Jihad has wider meanings, it does not necessarily mean armed struggle against oppression and self defence only but other peaceful means are also included. The specific word used exclusively for warfare is Qitaal (Qur’an;2:216-217) or Qatelu, wa-Qatalu (Qar’an;4 89-91).

The use of word ‘Holy War’ for armed struggle for the cause of Allah is a misnomer, Qur’an does not use this word Holy War any where. Jihad is only for the cause of Allah, how it can be employed against Muslim brothers? Or even innocent non Muslims, Allah forbids killing of innocent ‘human beings’ : Allah says: “..whoever kills a person, except as a punishment for murder or mischief in the land, it will be written in his book of deeds as if he had killed all the human beings and whoever will save a life shall be regarded as if he gave life to all the human beings..”(Al Maidah,5:32) Allah says: “You shall not kill anyone whom God has forbidden, except for just cause under the law. If anyone is killed unjustly, We have granted the right of retribution to his heir, but let him not carry his vengeance too far in killing the culprit through taking the law in his own hands, as he is supported by the law.”(Al-Israa;17:33)

Suicide is not Permissible in Islam: All Allah says: “.. do not cast yourselves into destruction by your own hands…” (Al-Baqarah,2:195): “..do not kill yourselves by adopting unlawful means….”(An-Nisa,4:29). Narrated Thabit bin Ad Dahhak: The Prophet said; “whoever commits suicide with something, will be punished with the same thing in the (Hell) fire”.(Sahih Al Bukhari Hadith Numbr:8.126). Narrated Jabir ibn Samurah: (The dead body) of a person who had killed himself with a broad-headed arrow was brought before the Apostle of Allah (peace be upon him), but he did not offer prayers for him.(Sahih Muslim Hadith. Number.486).

Islam is the faith of “Peace”, the early Muslim community was urged to conduct the Bigger Jihad (Jihad Kabira), through Qur’an, i.e.  Preaching of God’s message, they were not permitted to fight their opponents despite excessive oppression. It was only when Islam gained strength at Medina; Jihad by sword was permitted to defend the frail expanding Muslim community. Qur’an says; “To those against whom war is made permission is given (to fight) because they are wronged and verily God is Most powerful for their aid. (They are) those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right (for no cause) except that they say “Our Lord is God.” Did not Allah check one set of people by means of another there would surely have been pulled down monasteries churches synagogues and mosques in which the name of God is commemorated in abundant measure. God will certainly aid those who aid His (cause); for verily Allah is Full of Strength Exalted in Might.(Qur’an; 22:39-40).”

The Qur’an provides the code of conduct of warefare more civilized than any in the whole history of humanity; “Fight for the cause of God those who fight against you, but do not commit aggression. Allah does not love aggressors. Kill them wherever you may find them, and drive them away from wherever they drove you away; for oppression is even worse than killing. However, do not fight them near the Sacred Mosque unless they fight you first there. Should they fight you, and then kill them. Thus shall the unbelievers be rewarded. But, if they desist, know that God is Much Forgiving, Merciful. Fight them until there is no more oppression and submission is made to Allah. If they desist, let there be no hostility except against the wrongdoers.”(Qur’an; 2:190-193).

No Warfare with Peaceful Non Believers:  Qur’an says: “As for such of the unbelievers who do not fight against you on account of your faith, and neither drive you forth from your homelands, God does not forbid you to show them kindness and to behave toward them with full equity. Indeed God loves those who act equitably. Allah only forbids you to turn in friendship toward such as fight against you because of your faith, and drive you forth from your homelands, or aid others in driving you forth. Those who turn toward them in friendship are truly wrongdoers.”(Qur’an;60:8-9): “So those who have migrated and were driven forth from their homes and have been persecuted in My Cause, and have fought and have been slain, verily I shall remit their evil deeds from them and verily I shall bring them into Gardens.”(Qur’an;3:195). “And whosoever strives, strives only for himself, for verily God is altogether independent of His creatures of the world” (Qur’an;29:6).

In the latter case, it is the response of an army -not of individuals- to persecution or oppression of a Muslim people, and in this case Jihad has to be declared by the Khaliph. (Note: since the collapse of Turkey in WWI, there is no Khaliphate, therefore no Jihad could be waged legally).

[It is correct that Jihad is to be declared by the ruler of Islamic state (n consultation with renowned scholars, there is no concept of Rabbi, Pope or clergy in mainstream Islam). The Caliph was the name given to the Muslim rulers after the death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him). There were only first four accepted Rightly Guided Caliphs, Ali being the last one. There after the title Caliph has been used by Muslim rulers as a token, they were in fact Kings or Sultans, last being the Ottomans. The rule in Islam is based upon ‘consultation’ “..conduct their affairs with mutual consultation” (Qur’an42:38). There has to be Islamic government to declare Jihad, since there are many Muslim countries, if the need be they can declare Jihad for their people, can not declare universal Jihad, unless there is a universal system of government like Islamic UNO or potent OIC]. Hence if the conditions of Jihad specified in Qur’an exists, the Jihad can still be declared by an Islamic State, not groups or individuals.

Notwithstanding this legal definition, Muslim nations waging wars, even against other Muslim nations in recent years, labeled them as “Jihad” (e.g. Iraq against Persia; Egypt against Yemen); they inflated the idea of Jihad far beyond its original meaning to suite their temporary interests.

No War for Personal Glory, Respect of Agreements: The Muslims are not required to wage wars for the sake of acquiring worldly glory, power, and rule only. According to traditional Islamic law agreed by many traditional scholars (not clearly spelled out in Qur’an), the world is divided into three zones: the House of Islam (Dar-ul-Islam), where Muslims are ascendant; the House of Peace (Dar-ul-Aman), those powers with whom Muslims have peace agreements; and the House of War (Dar-ul-Harab), the rest of the world. In the present world all the nations are members of United Nations Organization and signatory to its charter of peaceful coexistence and basic human rights, whereby every human being is free to adopt and practice any faith. Hence now whole world could be termed as House of Peace (Dar-ul-Aman).

Allah says: “.. and do not seek mischief in the land, for Allah does not love the mischief makers.”(Al-Qasas;28:77); Allah says: “When it is said to them: “Do not make mischief on earth,” they say: “We make peace. Be aware! They are the ones who make mischief but they do not realize it.”(Al-Baqara;2:11-12 similarly also at 2:60, 206, 3:63, 7:56)

Here in Israel today, we are confronted with a different kind of Jihad. Jihad against the Jews was demanded by Mufti Amin El-Husseini already in 1943 [i.e. five years before the founding of the State of Israel!]. As a friend and ally of Nazi-Germany, he broadcast over Radio Berlin:

“Kill the Jews wherever you find them, this is pleasing to Allah.”

Following this call, Jihad was demanded by the “Fourth Conference of the Academy of Islamic Research.” This conference was attended by high ranking delegates from 24 Muslim countries, and was convened in 1969 at the behest of Gaml Abd-el-Nassr–then President of Egypt–at Cairo’s Al Azhar University. The roceedings were published in 1970 by the office of the “General Organization for Government Printing ” in Cairo, in Arabic, and in an official English translation.

In its “Resolution and Recommendations”… the Conference states:

“First:

(a) That the causes for which combat and Jihad must be taken up as defined in the Holy Qura’n are all manifest in the Israeli aggression..”

(b) …………

(c) The Conference calls for strengthening the struggle which is being waged by the Palestinian people [note: by the Palestinian people; not against them!], and providing it with all means of escalating the battle to fulfill its objective……………

Fifthly :

(a) “Against them make ready your strength to the utmost of your power,including steeds of war, to strike terror into [the hearts of] the enemies of God and your enemies, and others besides, whom you may notknow, but who God doth know (Sura VIII, 60).”

Sixthly :

(a) The Conference denounces the support of certain countries for Israel and Israel‘s aggression, and declares such support to be a challenge to Muslim peoples, a demonstration of enmity toward them,  and a total disregard of their sentiments.

(b) The Conference declares that Muslims everywhere will not remain mere spectators in the face of Zionist racist covetousness in the Arabic and Islamic worlds; nor will they shrink from giving their lives in defence of their countries and sanctuaries, and for the restoration of their usurped land…….” (literal transcript from the “Proceedings”)

We should not think that either the Camp David Agreement with Egypt, or the Oslo Accords with the PLO, has rendered the above calls for Jihad obsolete. Rather, the Jihad psychosis generated by the calls for Jihad (those quoted as well as numerous others) has bred groups like “Islamic Jihad”, “Hamas”, and “Hizbullah.” Significantly enough, the PLO’s late “Minister of War” was given the name “Abu Jihad” [liter. “Father of the Holy War”]; and even the name of the PLO’s chieftain, Arafat, is a nom de guerre, a campaign slogan. Taken from the name of a hill next to Mecca, it signifies the culmination of a Muslim’s haj (pilgrimage). So Yassir Arafat is to be the culmination of liberating the entire land of Palestine (PLO = Palestine Liberation Organization). Even after his death, he remains the symbol figure for that end.

{Arafat is also the name of River in Iraq}

These terror groups enjoy widespread material and ideological support in the Muslim world. Their fighters are celebrated as heroes; Muslim states grant them shelter and backing (e.g. via UN resolutions); and not even suicide bombers etc. are considered terrorists in these societies –rather they are promised entry into Paradise if killed in action.

Obviously, fighting these terrorists with conventional weapons (police, military actions, etc.) can at best be only one means of defense. Unfortunately, the notion that improving the economic situation would pull the carpet out from under the Jihad bigots has not proved correct. (Note: The Palestinian Arabs enjoy a higher standard of living than most of their Arab neighbors. Further more, Jihad groups are financed mainly by the wealthiest Muslim nations!)

It seems to me that the psychological/religious aspect of the battle is no less important; indeed it deserves immediate full attention and action. Fortunately, here we do not have to use ploys. It is the Koran [Qura’n] itself which in due time can help defuse the Jihad psychosis, pacify the minds of the Muslim peoples, and pave the way for dependable peace with Israel.

Comments:

I fully agree with the above statement; “It is the Koran [Qura’n] itself which in due time can help defuse the Jihad psychosis, pacify the minds of the Muslim peoples, and pave the way for dependable peace with Israel.” Let us see how? The main condition of jihad in Middle East is the “expulsion of Palestinians form their home land and homes, to pave the way for the creation of Israel, and their ‘oppression’ as quoted above : “those who have been expelled from their homes in defiance of right (for no cause” (Qur’an; 22:39-40).” And ““Fight for the cause of God those who fight against you”: “Allah does not love aggressors. Kill them wherever you may find them, and drive them away from wherever they drove you away; for oppression is even worse than killing”. So if these conditions are removed or addressed there will be fairness and justice, equitable living and peace.

History is witness to the fact that the peace, enforced on weaker by the powerful aggressor through military might does not last long. The recent example of 1st World War Germany which rebuked years later in 2nd WW.

Though I may not agree in totality, the approach adopted by Susan Nathan, a Jewish immigrant women, who suggests a practicable Resolution of Israeli-Palestinian Conflict. Nathan proposes a model that combines elements of both one-state and two-state solutions. Not a perfect solution. But it has the advantage of moving this intractable situation in a new direction, and it is proposed by a woman who truly understands both sides of the conflict, from the inside out. Susan Nathan’s voice is a unique one in Israeli society. We would all do well to listen.  May read it at:  http://endeavour-peace.page.tl/Hot-Topics.htm.

This theme has been developed in an article entitled:

PEACE IS POSSIBLE BETWEEN ISHMAEL AND ISRAEL ACCORDING TO THE KORAN.

It carries a supportive foreword by the Sheikh Prof. Abdul Hadi Palazzi.

My point is further supported by the fact that there are now quite a few Muslim countries that do not adhere to the (pseudo-religious) call for Jihad against Israel, but rather have established full diplomatic relations with her. Notable among them are Uzbekistan, and Kazakstan, two Muslim countries with over 40 million inhabitants!

Comments: Uzbekistan, and Kazakstan, are the two countries which remained under Communist USSR for over 70 years, even now their rulers are old Communists, changing the outlook but do not know much about Islam. There are movements with in their own countries against the oppressor rulers. So the example of these oppressor rulers are not worth consideration in a sold logical argument please. I had a very close personal interaction with one of the Presidents of central Asian states during OIC Head of States Conference held at Islamabad few years back. I know their knowledge of Islam and practices very well.

The governments in these courtiers may not be representing the general views and sentiments of their populations. They have their own political, economic and security compulsions but their public is definitely not on board.

Conclusion:

An independent institute headed by relevant scholars should be entrusted with this task, and be endowed with the necessary means to work towards neutralizing the Jihad psychosis; to calm the agitated minds of many Muslims; and to work for developing a spiritual atmosphere conducive to establishing a trustworthy peace benefiting all parties involved.

Comments:

I tend to agree and support your concluding remarks partially. There are two types of Jihadi elements. Firstly those who are genuinely oppressed and expelled and qualify for the support by their fellow Muslims brothers, may it be physical, moral, diplomatic, material or in what ever feasible form. But the Jihad is to be conducted in the principles laid down in Qur’an and Sunnah.[no suicide bombing, no killing of innocent noncombatant civilians, old people, women & children etc.]The other side should also use restraints not to use excessive firepower upon civilians through jet aircrafts, artillery and tanks. This is the war of independence by the oppressed ill equipped, homeless people for their existence and survival, Jihad or no Jihad it will continue till the issue is settled amicably to the satisfaction of the belligerents. Remember today’s weak may be strong tomorrow, as Jews after worst persecution by Europeans for centuries [living in Ghettos, anti-Semitism] reaching its climax in Nazi Germany could not finish them. Jews were well looked after in Muslim Spain and on expulsion in Ottoman Turkey. Why can’t these children of Abraham live at peace now?

The second is the category of Jihadis, who without any genuine reason fight and create mischief on the land, to create anarchy or to gain power. As it is happening now in parts of Pakistan adjoining Afghanistan (FATA). Such gangsters have nothing to do with Islam or Jihad, their purpose is different, they are using the name of Jihad to gain public sympathy and support, in which they are failing now.

If sincere efforts are made to reconcile and resolve the conflict then this second category of Jihadis [called non state actors] could be dealt with by the Muslims themselves. Like any religious group we also have the history of extremist “Khwarjis” since the 1300 years ago.

See Links:

  1. What is Jihad? https://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AU74ipQP1jsWZGd4ZnZ2M18xN2htcndidmZw&hl=en
  2. Jihad, Myth & Reality: https://docs.google.com/fileview?id=0B0Qfx8dX9TCvNTQyNDc2NzEtMDk3Ny00NzUyLWI2NGUtMTZmOWE2ODQ0ODM2&hl=en

Dr. Asher Eder

Jewish Co-Chairman

Israel-Ishmael Fellowship

A division of the Root & Branch Assoc., Jerusalem

Fax: 972-2-6739012; rb@rb.org.il  www\\:rb.org.il

Abujak / AftabKhan

http://endeavour-peace.page.tl

https://faithforum.wordpress.com

E Mail:  faithforum@live.com

Foiling the Anti-Israel “Jihad” Psychosis

The incitement by some Muslim circles to annihilate Israel – which began many years before Israel’s Declaration of Independence – is on the rise. It threatens not only Israel; it endangers the whole world. It is a crime against national and international laws at least on a par with neo-Nazi incitements and hostilities.

The advocates of Israel’s destruction pretend that waging war against her is Jihad, a religious duty, while in fact it is not Jihad at all.  It plainly contradicts the teaching of the Qur’an, as well as the tenet of the oneness of Allah: Jihad against Israel is a contradiction in terms, and pretends that fratricide is divine decree!

Mere reliance on protection by soldiers and armed policemen will not solve the problem caused by those who attack Jews and Israel, and claim that doing so is Jihad; nor would economic means or other political devices do the trick. It does not make much sense to negotiate a cease fire with the PA as long as the destruction of the “Zionist entity” is portrayed in the Arab world as a religious duty, or Jihad. We should expose its frenzy and make clear to our neighbors that normal relations with Israel are in line with the teaching of the Qur’an, and not a betrayal of Islam1.

In the present situation, a real Jihad (literally: a religious duty carried out in spite of severe hindrances) worthy of that name and in line with the teaching of the Qur’an, would consist of pursuing brotherly relations between the descendants of Israel and the  descendants of Ishmael. This would benefit all, and would honor the Name of the G-d of Abraham, our common ancestor. The Jihad being waged – hatred and fratricide – constitutes a real betrayal of Islamic Holy Writ.

There are many ways to drive home this point: in the classrooms; radio and TV broadcasts, newspapers; leaflets, diplomatic channels, re-educate imprisoned Jihadists; and so forth. The means are at hand – we simply need to employ them, and do it diligently.

Dr. Asher Eder                                                                                       Sheikh Abdul Hadi Palazzi

Jewish Co-Chairman                                                                                     Muslim Co-Chairman

The Islam-Israel Fellowship

Root & Branch Association Ltd, Jerusalem

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x) see the essay, “Peace is Possible between Ishmael and Israel according to Qur’an and Tanakh” available from the above address.

xxxxxxxxx

Comments:

I tend to agree and support your concluding remarks partially. There are two types of Jihadi elements. Firstly those who are genuinely oppressed and expelled and qualify for the support by their fellow Muslims brothers, may it be physical, moral, diplomatic, material or in what ever feasible form. But the Jihad is to be conducted in the principles laid down in Qur’an and Sunnah.[no suicide bombing, no killing of innocent noncombatant civilians, old people, women & children etc.]The other side should also use restraints not to use excessive firepower upon civilians through jet aircrafts, artillery and tanks. This is the war of independence by the oppressed ill equipped, homeless people for their existence and survival, Jihad or no Jihad it will continue till the issue is settled amicably to the satisfaction of the belligerents. Remember today’s weak may be strong tomorrow, as Jews after worst persecution by Europeans for centuries [living in Ghettos, anti-Semitism] reaching its climax in Nazi Germany could not finish them. Jews were well looked after in Muslim Spain and on expulsion in Ottoman Turkey. Why can’t these children of Abraham live at peace now?

The second is the category of Jihadis, who without any genuine reason fight and create mischief on the land, to create anarchy or to gain power. As it is happening now in parts of Pakistan adjoining Afghanistan (FATA). Such gangsters have nothing to do with Islam or Jihad, their purpose is different, they are using the name of Jihad to gain public sympathy and support, in which they are failing now.

If sincere efforts are made to reconcile and resolve the conflict then this second category of Jihadis [called non state actors] could be dealt with by the Muslims themselves. Like any religious group we also have the history of extremist “Khwarjis” since the 1300 years ago.

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Jihad, Psycho-Religio Aspects: http://wp.me/PCgrB-4t

Links:

  1. What is Jihad? https://docs.google.com/Doc?docid=0AU74ipQP1jsWZGd4ZnZ2M18xN2htcndidmZw&hl=en
  2. Jihad, Myth & Realityhttps://docs.google.com/fileview?id=0B0Qfx8dX9TCvNTQyNDc2NzEtMDk3Ny00NzUyLWI2NGUtMTZmOWE2ODQ0ODM2&hl=en


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