Modern Theories of Creation

Scientific Theories:

The scientists, despite all the advancement in science and technology, so far have not been able to ascertain the precise process of creation of universe with certainty. The research still devolves around models and theories, which may be termed as ‘Scientific Myths’. In early 20th century, the discoveries of famous scientist Hubble and Einstein taken together gave rise to a new worldview. The new cosmology gave empirical validation to the notion of a creation event; it assigned a numerical estimate for when the arrow of time first took flight; and it eventually led to the breathtaking idea that everything in the universe could have arisen from literally nothing. The most popular scientific models of creation of universe are; The  ‘Big-Bang Model’ and ‘Steady-State Theory’.

The Russian meteorologist and mathematician Aleksandr Friedmann (1888–1925) developed the theory of ‘Model Universe’ in 1922. He hypothesized a ‘Big Bang’ followed by expansion, then contraction and an eventual ‘Big Crunch’. His model supposes a closed universe, but similar solutions involve an open universe (which expands infinitely) or a flat universe (in which expansion continues infinitely but gradually approaches a rate of zero). The widely held theory of the origin of the universe, thus revolve around this ‘Big-Bang Model’, which holds that the universe emerged from a state of extremely high temperature and density in an explosive expansion 10 to 15 billion years ago. [“Have not the unbelievers ever considered that the skies and the earth were once one mass, then We split them asunder?”(Qur’an;21:30); “Then He turned towards the sky, which was but smoke, He said to it and to the earth: ‘Come forward both of you, willingly or unwillingly,’ and they submitted: ‘We shall come willing’”(Qur’an;41:11); “He has raised the heaven on high and created the balance:”(Qur’an;55:7)]. Its two basic assumptions—that Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity correctly describes the gravitational interaction of all matter and that an observer’s view of the universe does not depend on direction of observation or on location—make it possible to calculate physical conditions in the universe back to a very early time called the Planck time. According to the model proposed by George Gamow in the 1940s, the universe expanded rapidly from a highly compressed early state, with a steady decrease in density and temperature. Within seconds, matter predominated over antimatter and certain nuclei formed. [“We command but once and Our will is done in the twinkling of an eye”(Qur’an;4:50)]. It took another million years before atoms could form and electromagnetic radiation could travel through space unimpeded. The abundances of hydrogen, helium, and lithium and the discovery of cosmic background radiation support the model, which also explains the redshifts of the light from distant galaxies as resulting from the expansion of space. The possibility exists that other relics from the early universe may eventually be discovered. The current understanding of the state of the universe is based on ‘Expanding Universe’ model. It is based on the finding that all galaxies are moving away from each other. [“.. He has subjected the sun and the moon to follow His law, each pursuing its course for an appointed term..” (Qur’an;31:29)]. Application of general relativity to cosmology, along with the detection of redshifted light coming from galaxies outside the Milky Way Galaxy, led to the realization in the 1920s that all galaxies are receding. It is unknown whether the universe will expand indefinitely (open universe) or eventually collapse (closed universe) into an extremely dense, congested state, as it began, according to the Big-Bang Model. The Steady-State Theory is based on the concept of an expanding universe whose average density remains constant, matter being continuously created throughout it to form new stars and galaxies at the same rate that old ones recede from sight. A ‘Steady-State Universe’ has no beginning or end, and its average density and arrangement of galaxies are the same as seen from every point. Galaxies of all ages are intermingled. The theory was first put forward by William Macmillan (1861–1948) in the 1920s and modified by Fred Hoyle to deal with problems that had arisen in connection with the Big-Bang Model. Much evidence obtained since the 1950s contradicts the ‘Steady-State Theory’ and supports the ‘Big-Bang Model’.

In the absence of definitive observational conclusions, scientists can only speculate on the possible fate of the actual universe. If the universe is unbound, the cosmological expansion will not halt, and eventually the galaxies and stars will all die, leaving the Cosmos a cold, dark, and virtually empty place. If the universe is bound, the mass-energy content in the distant but finite future will come together again; the cosmic background radiation will be blue shifted, raising the temperature of matter and radiation to incredible levels, perhaps to reforge everything in the fiery crucible of the ‘Big Squeeze’. Because of the development of structure in previous epochs, the big squeeze may not occur simultaneously everywhere at the end of time as its explosive counterpart, the ‘Big Bang’, seems to have done at the beginning of time.

The Black Hole, play an important role in the theories related with the end of universe. Black Hole is the cosmic body with gravity so intense that nothing, not even light, can escape. It is suspected to form in the death and collapse of a star that has retained at least three times the Sun’s mass. Stars with less mass evolve into white dwarf stars or neutron stars. Details of a black hole’s structure are calculated from Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity: a “singularity” of zero volume and infinite density pulls in all matter and energy that comes within an ‘event horizon’ (Boundary marking the limits of a black hole), defined by the ‘Schwarzschild Radius’, around it. Black Holes cannot be observed directly because they are small and emit no light. However, their enormous gravitational fields affect nearby matter, which is drawn in and emits X rays as it collides at high speed outside the event horizon. Some Black Holes may have nonstellar origins. Astronomers speculate that supermassive Black Holes at the centers of quasars and many galaxies are the source of energetic activity that is observed. Stephen W. Hawking theorized the creation of numerous tiny Black Holes, possibly no more massive than an asteroid, during the Big Bang. These primordial “Mini Black Holes” lose mass over time and disappear as a result of Hawking radiation. Although Black Holes remain theoretical, the case for their existence is supported by many observations of phenomena that match their predicted effects. However discussions of recurring cycles of expansions and contractions of universe, thus remain highly speculative.

Theosophical Theories:

Apart from scientists, the theologians and philosophers have also postulated theories of creation. The most popular theories of creation of universe, among modern philosophers and theologians are; ‘Accident Theory’ and ‘Creation by Design’.

According to ‘Accident Theory’, the universe is created through an accident. There is no God, or a creator, the view of atheists. It may be seen that the universe and this world is so well organized, working according to laws, it can not be outcome of an accident, it must be the work of a Creator. The universe is so big, so vast so wonderful, that human perceptions can not fully comprehend it despite the advancement in technology and knowledge. So its creator also has to be very big very great, infinite, that it is beyond the finite physical human capabilities (specially senses) to fully comprehend Him directly. However the great gift of ‘intellect’ can be used to feel His existence. How to feel His existence? If one can not perceive some thing directly through the senses then the ‘signs’ guide to the reality. If in the sea some one observes birds in some particular direction, it indicates existence of some Island or land, although no one has seen the island or land, but it is the intellect which informs that the birds have to be closer to land, they can not survive in the sea for long. If one looks at himself, the human being is a very complex unique machine, it can not be product of an accident. How the universe, the heaven, stars, sun, moon and earth, came in to existence? The scientists have tried to resolve this issue and theorize that the universe is the outcome of ‘Big Bang’, as explained earlier. The big mass, exploded and there became stars, galaxies, solar system and earth. A Big Bang made this world, which is so well organized having a definite pattern. People have been navigating using patterns of stars since long. The solar system follows some rules. There is fixed pattern of rotation and gravitational forces interacting, making days & nights, precisely in a fixed cycle spread over time, the result of a ‘Big Bang’!  If there is some huge heap of junk lying on ground and there comes a tornado, once the tornado is over, it is found that the heap of junk is dispersed more haphazardly. If a tornado hits a city, rubble is found all around once it is over; there is no definite new organized pattern. If dynamite is exploded in a heap of rubbish, it does not result in good products like car or a house. If Big Bang which produced the well organized galaxies, stars and solar system and earth why could not the tornado or an explosion produce some organized things? Because in case of the ‘Big Bang’ there is an all powerful all wise Creator, known as God or Allah. Where as in case of tornado (though with the will of God) there is no intelligent force operating with the intentions to create some thing out of it, the natural wild forces interact resulting in to confusion and destruction.

Creation by Design Theory is a derivative form of ‘Teleological Arguments’. God created the universe as a part of His Grand Design; hence it is well laid out, well organized, following rules. This creation is not the result of some natural accident; it will end at prescribed time. Allah says: “And We created not the heaven and the earth and all that is between them in vain… ”(Qur’an;:38:27). He is capable of doing anything in the Heavens or in the Earth, because of His perfect knowledge and power: His creation is not dependent on material, time, instruments or means, or any conditions whatsoever. Human require some material to make some thing i.e. a carpenter requires tools, wood  and other material to make furniture. Allah, Most High creates things out of nothing; He has knowledge of them in pre-eternity, before their creation. Existence waits on His Will, or Plan, or Intention. The moment He wills a thing, it becomes His Word or Command, and the thing comes into existence. “Indeed His command, when He desires a thing, is only to say to it ‘Be’ and it is” (Qur’an;36:82). He is free from weariness and weakness, because of His infinite power: “Surely, We created the Heavens and the Earth and all that is between them in six eons (very long periods), and no weariness touched Us”(Qur’an;50:38);“Have you not known? Have you not heard? The LORD is the everlasting God, the Creator of the ends of the earth. He does not faint or grow weary, his understanding is Unsearchable.” (Isaiah;40:28).

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