“Abraham was not a Jew nor yet a Christian; but He was true In Faith, and bowed His will to God (in Islam), and He joined not gods with God. Without doubt, among men, the nearest of kin to Abraham, are those who follow him, As are also This Messenger (Muhammad) and those who believe and God is the Protector of those who have Faith.”(Qur’an;3:67-68). “–nearest in affection to the believers are those who say: “We are Christians.” (Qur’an;5:82). “Jesus said unto them, If you were Abraham’s children, you would do the (deeds) works of Abraham”(John;8:39). “Why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right?”(Jesus Christ, Luke;12:57).
Judaism, Christianity, and Islam are three closely related religions, because they draw their roots form Prophet Abraham (peace be upon him). He was the great monotheist and common spiritual father, of three faiths, also referred as Abrahamic religions. They all believe in the Hebrew prophets and scriptures mentioned in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament). While Jews reject Jesus Christ altogether with blasphemy, the Muslims believe in Gospel and Jesus as Christ and the last Prophet of God among Hebrews. While Jews and Christians are granted special status as “The People of Scripture”, Christians are shown tenderness:“–nearest in affection to the believers are those who say: “We are Christians.”(Qur’an;5:82).
Despite clear prophesies about Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) which even now exist in the Bible [Old and New Testaments, details follow], the Jews and Christians decline to believe in Qur’an and Muhammad (pbuh) as the prophet of God. Islam urges them to agree to common grounds of monotheism (Qur’an;3:64). However, the common roots and many points of similarities are no guarantee that they can get along, because of lack of will. Most of the serious religiously motivated conflicts (Crusaders), mass crimes against humanity like inquisition, genocides and forced expulsion [Spain] have been between Muslims and Christians. The Jews got their share from Christendom in the form of anti-Semitism, oppression and finally holocaust during last century. However they have been able to dominate the Christendom through control of world economy and shenanigan geopolitics despite fundamental religious doctrinal differences with Christianity. Though Jews were always treated well under Muslim rule, they have formed an unholy alliance with Christendom against Islam and Muslims by projecting it as a common threat: “they are only protecting friends of one another.”(Qur’an;5:51). The simmering Palestinian oppression, terrorist attacks on 911, followed by the invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan are not simple but complex interrelated issues. Islam being the dominant faith for over a millennium has had a lasting impact upon Criminality and Judaism. Before discussing the impact of Islam upon Christianity, it is pertinent to briefly look in to the historic developments of evolution of monotheistic teachings of Jesus Christ to the polytheistic concept of Trinity, the core of Christianity.
Among the three great monotheistic religions, Christianity has a place apart, because of the Trinitarian creed of this religion in its classic forms, in contradistinction to the Unitarian creed of Judaism and Islam. According to Encyclopedia Britannica: “The Christian Bible, including the New Testament, has no Trinitarian statements or speculations concerning a trinitary deity, only triadic liturgical formulas invoking God the Father, Son, and Holy Spirit”. The only verse in the whole of Bible [1John;5:7] which was interpreted to supports Trinity is not found in old manuscripts, hence in all the modern translations including the Revised Standard Version (RSV) this pious deceit has been unceremoniously expunged being interpolation.
The Bible clearly preaches and supports monotheism: “And Jesus answered him. The first of all the commandments is, Hear, 0 Israel; the Lord our God is one Lord: And thou shall love the Lord thy God with all thy heart, and with all thy soul, and with mind, and with all thy strength; this is the first commandment” . . . And the scribe said unto him, well, Master, thou, hest said the truth: for there is ONE GOD and there is none other but He”.(Mark;12: 29-32). “Hear, therefore, O Israel, the LORD our God, is one LORD”.(Deuteronomy;6:4). “You are my witnesses, said the Lord, and my servant whom I have chosen; that ye may know and believe me, and understand that I am he; before me, there was no God formed, neither shall there be after me”. I, even I, am the Lord; and beside me there is no Saviour.” (Isaiah;43:11). “Our Lord, there is none like thee, neither is there any God beside thee, according to all that we have heard with our ears”. (1Chronicles;17:20 & 2Samuel;7:22). “For thou art great, and doest wondrous things: thou art God alone”.(Psalms;86:10).“Thus saith the Lord … I am the first, and I am the Last; and beside me there is no God” (Isaiah;44:6,41:4). “For thus said the Lord that created the heavens: God himself that formed the earth and made it; he hath established it, he created it not in vain, he formed it to be inhabited, I am the Lord; and there is none else.”(Isaiah;45:18). “For who in the heaven can be compared unto the Lord? who among the sons of the mighty can be likened unto the Lord.” (Psalms;89:6, also Isaiah;40:18, 45:5,6).“And the Lord shall be king all over the earth: in that day shall there be ONE LORD and his name one.”(Zecharia;14:9). “Have we not all one father? hath not one God created us?” (Malachi;25:6). “Father is greater than I”(John;14:29). “There is none other God but one.”(1Corinthians;8:4).“One God and Father of all, who is above all, and through all, and in you all”. (Ephesians;4:6). “For there is one God..”(1Timothy;2:5). Also, Genesis;28:13, Deuteronomy; 4:35-39, 32:39, 33:26, Exodus;15:11, 20:23, 8:10, Psalms;83:18, Isaia;43:3, 44:8, 64:4 1Kings;8:22:23, Hosea;13:4 and John;14:44.
Islam believes in strict Abrahamic monotheism, individual responsibility and accountability, also preached by Jesus Christ and other prophets. The Israelites were chosen among the people of that time for blessings and leadership role of humanity being monotheists. But gradually they deviated form the true path, corrupting scripture and indulging in immoral activities. The religion was practically confined to rituals under domination of Rabbis and teachers of Law. God then sent Prophet Jesus Christ born miraculously without father, who performed miracles with blessings of God. The mission of Jesus Christ is summarized in Bible and Qur’an:
And We caused Jesus, the son of Mary, to follow in the footsteps of those (earlier prophets), confirming the truth of what ever there still remained of the Torah (Law); and We bestowed on him the Gospel wherein there was guidance and a light, confirming the truth of whatever there still remained of the Torah, and as a guidance and admonition unto the God conscious.”(Qur’an;5:46).
“Think not that I have come to abolish the law and the prophets; I have come not to abolish them but to fulfill them. For truly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, not an iota, not a dot, will pass from the law until all is accomplished. Whoever then relaxes one of the least of these commandments and teaches men so shall be called least in the kingdom of heaven; but he who does them and teaches them shall be called great in the kingdom of heaven. For I tell you, unless your righteousness exceeds that of the scribes and Pharisees, you will never enter the kingdom of heaven.”(Mathew;5:17-20, also 5:3-12 ,6:9-13).
Jesus’ emphasis on moral sincerity rather and relaxation in strict adherence to religious ritual incurred the enmity of the Pharisees (Jewish dominant religious party of scholars and priests), who feared that his teachings might lead to disregard for the authority of the Law, or Torah. Others feared that Jesus’ activities and followers might prejudice the Roman authorities against any restoration of the Davidic monarchy. Despite this growing opposition, Jesus’ popularity increased, especially among social outcasts and the oppressed, which was taken as a threat to their domination and authority by the community of priests. They conspired to kill him for false accusation of blasphemy in 30 C.E but God failed their conspiracy: “That they said (in boast) “We killed Christ Jesus the son of Mary the Apostle of God”; but they killed him not nor crucified him but so it was made to appear to them and those who differ therein are full of doubts with no (certain) knowledge but only conjecture to follow for of a surety they killed him not. Nay God raised him up unto Himself; and God is Exalted in Power Wise. (Qur’an;4:157-158). Jesus Christ will return before end of the world, as a Muslim (not new Prophet) to prove that he was only a messenger of God, nothing more. He will rule the world as just ruler and die natural death.
After ascent of Jesus Christ, the original followers of Jesus Christ continued to live as Jews and practiced what Jesus had taught them. It did not occur to any of them that they could ever be regarded as followers of a new religion. They were devout and practicing Jews and they were distinguished from their neighbors, only by their faith in the message of Jesus Christ. In the beginning they did not organize themselves as a separate sect and did not have a synagogue (Jewish worship place) of their own. There was nothing in the message of Jesus, as understood by them, to necessitate a break with Judaism. However, they incurred the enmity of the vested interests among the Jewish higher echelon. The conflict between the Jews and the followers of Jesus was started by the Jews because they felt that the Christians would undermine their “authority”. The gulf progressively began to widen. During the siege of Jerusalem in 70 C.E, they left the city; and refused to take part in the Bar Coachaba rebellion in 132 C.E. These two events brought to the surface the difference between the followers of Jesus Christ and the Jews.
The question of the origin of Jesus, his nature and relation to God, which later became so important, was not raised among these early disciples. The belief that Jesus was a man super-naturally endowed by God was accepted without question. Nothing in the words of Jesus or the events in his life led them to modify this view. According to Aristides, one of the earliest apologists, the worship of the early Christians was more purely monotheistic even than of the Jews. With the conversion of Paul (4–64 C.E) the self appointed 13th disciple of Jesus, a new period opened in Christian Theology. Paul a Jew and an inhabitant of Tarsus, had spent a long time in Rome, he was a Roman citizen. He realized the strong hold which the Roman religion had on the masses. The intellectuals were under the influence of Plato and Aristotle. Paul seems to have felt that it would not be possible to convert the masses in the Roman Empire without making mutual adjustments. But his practical wisdom was not acceptable to those who had seen and heard Jesus. However, in spite of their difference, they decided to work together for the common cause. Paul introduced new doctrines involving deification of Jesus. Instead of being a mere sect of Judaism, Christianity not only became independent of Judaism but also became independent of Jesus himself. Paul added new doctrines and the worship of Jesus Christ to the spiritual message of Jesus. Paul never learned any thing from Jesus directly, but claimed to get the revelation (Galatians;1:12), which no one could confirm or deny, he became the foremost proselytizer of the new religion of Christianity. Initially relaxation of law was agreed to facilitate gentile’s (Non Jews, Romans, Greeks etc) conversion, not permanent abrogation in the Council of Jerusalem (50 C.E). There was rift, the monotheist disciples like Barnabas parted away. Pauline Christians grew in number and strength because Paul had compromised with Roman beliefs and legends. A stage was later reached when kings were used as pawns to further the ends of the Church. However Barnabas was able to record the original teachings of Jesus Christ which remains available to the truth seekers even now despite all the malicious efforts to obliterate them. Commandment of Jesus about Barnabas is: “If he (Barnabas) comes un to you, receive him”(Clossians;4:10)
After doctrinal differences with Paul, the original monotheists disciples like Barnabas did not sit idle but continued preaching the true message of monotheism of Jesus Christ. The followers of Barnabas never developed a central organization. Yet due to the truthfulness of simple theology and devotion of their leaders, their number increased very fast. These Christians incurred the wrath of the Church and systematic effort was made to destroy them and to obliterate all traces of their existence including books and churches. The lesson of history, however, is that it is very difficult to destroy faith by force. Their lack of organization became a source of strength because it was not so easy to pick them up one by one. Later many doctrines and groups appeared inspired by the teachings of Barnabas; however they avoided mentioning name of Barnabas due to the fear of persecution. After Jesus, the Romans rule over Palestine continued, however after unsuccessful Jewish uprising, the Jewish temple was burnt in 70 C.E and Jews dispersed, all over the world mostly they were treated as lower class citizens:“We broke them up into sections on this earth. There are among them some that are the righteous and some that are the opposite. We have tried them with both prosperity and adversity: in order that they might turn (to us).”(Qur’an;7:168). They were forced to live in ghettos. With the conversion of Constantine-I, to (monotheistic-Arian) Christianity in the beginning of 4th century, Palestine became fully Christianized however the monotheistic Christianity continues to survive in the form of sects till this day.
Monarchianism: Monarchianism was a Christian dissent sect that developed during the 2nd and 3rd centuries C.E. It opposed the doctrine of an independent, personal subsistence of the Logos, affirmed the sole deity of God the Father, and thus represented the extreme monotheistic view. Though it regarded Christ as Redeemer, it clung to the numerical unity of the Deity. Two types of Monarchianism developed: the Dynamic (or Adoptionist) and the Modalistic (or Sabellian). The Dynamic Monarchianism held that Christ was a mere man, miraculously conceived, but constituted the Son of God (servant of God, in Hebrew terminology) simply by the infinitely high degree in which he had been filled with divine wisdom and power. This view was taught at Rome about the end of the 2nd century by Theodotus. About 260 C.E it was again taught by Paul of Samosata. It is the belief of many modern Unitarians Christians. Modalistic Monarchianism took exception to the “subordinationism” of some of the Church Fathers.
Hypisistarians: Modern research has brought to light odd facts about these Christians. They are like the crests of waves and looking at them one can visualize a whole body of ocean not yet visible. It is noticed that up to the 4th century C.E there existed a sect known as Hypisistarians who refused to worship God as father. They revered God as an All Mighty Ruler of the world, He was the Highest of all and no one was equal to Him.
Paul of Samosata: A Monarchianist, Paul of Samosata was a Bishop of Antioch in 260 C.E, was of the view that Christ was not God but a man and a prophet, he was a man who was born of Mary, through whom God spoke his Word (Logos). He differed only in degree from prophets who came before him and that God could not have become man substantially.
Bishop Lucian of Antioch: History come across another Bishop of Antioch; Lucian. As a Bishop his reputation for sanctity was not less than his fame as a scholar. He came down strongly against the belief of Trinity. He deleted all mention of Trinity from the Bible as he believed it to be a later interpolation not found in the earlier Gospels. He was martyred in 312 C.E by torture and starvation for refusing to eat meat ritually offered to the Roman gods.
Arius (250-336)–A Remarkable Unitarian: Arius (250-336 C.E) is the famous disciple of Lucian of Antioch. He was a Libyan by birth. Peter Bishop of Alexandria ordained him a Deacon but later excommunicated him. Achilles the successor of Peter again ordained Arius as priest. Alexander the next Bishop of Alexandria once again excommunicated him. Arius however had gathered such a large following that he became a headache for the Church. If kept out of Church he could be a great danger to her but he could not be accommodated within the Church as he wanted to establish the unity and simplicity of the Eternal God. He believed that how so ever much Christ may surpass other created beings he himself was not of the same substance as God. He was as human being as any other man. His teachings gave rise to a theological doctrine known as ‘Arianism’, which, in affirming the created, finite nature of Christ, was denounced by the early church as a major heresy. As an ascetical (renouncing material comforts and leading a life of austere self-discipline, especially as an act of religious devotion.), moral leader of a Christian community in the area of Alexandria, Arius attracted a large following through a message, which accented the absolute oneness of the divinity as the highest perfection, with a literal, rationalist approach to the New Testament texts. This point of view was publicized about 323C.E through the poetic verse of his major work, Thalia (“Banquet”), was widely spread by popular songs written for labourers and travelers. Hence the monotheistic teaching of Arius spread like wild fire and shook the very foundation of the (Pauline) Church. The controversy that was simmering for three hundred years suddenly became a conflagration. No man dared to oppose the organized Church but Arius did, and remained a headache for her whether he was ordained a priest or was excommunicated. During this time some events changed the history of Europe.
Arianism– The Monotheistic Christianity: Arianism may be summarized as; “The Christ is not truly divine but a created being. Arius’ basic premise was the uniqueness of God, who is alone self-existent and immutable; the Son, who is not self-existent, cannot be God. Because the Godhead is unique, it cannot be shared or communicated, so the Son cannot be God. Because the Godhead is immutable, the Son, who is mutable, being represented in the Gospels as subject to growth and change, cannot be God. The Son must, therefore, be deemed a creature who has been called into existence out of nothing (through Word, Logos or Command) and has had a beginning. Moreover, the Son can have no direct knowledge of the Father since the Son is finite and of a different order of existence.”
How Trinitarians Became Dominant Group: Emperor Constantine-I brought a greater part of Europe under his rule and secondly he began to support the Christians without accepting Christianity. To the soldier prince the different creeds within the Christian faith were very confusing. In the Imperial Palace itself the controversy was raging not less fiercely. It appears that perhaps the Queen Mother was inclined towards Pauline Christianity while his sister Princess Constantina was a disciple of Arius. The Emperor was wavering between the two faiths. As an administrator he was interested only in uniting all the Christians within one Church. It was at this time that the conflict between Arius and Bishop Alexander became so widespread and so violent that it became a law and order problem. So the Emperor anxious to maintain peace in the newly unified Europe had to intervene.
Council of Nicea (325) & Doctrine of Trinity: In 325 C.E a meeting of all denominations of Christianity was called at Nicea (Now Isnik, a village). Bishop Alexander was not able to attend the conference and he deputed his lieutenant Athanasius, who subsequently succeeded Alexander as Bishop of Alexandria. The conference had many prolonged sessions. Emperor Constantine could not grasp the full implications of the ecclesiastical confrontation, but he was very clear in his mind that for maintaining peace in his realm the support and cooperation of the Church was necessary. Accordingly he threw his weight behind Athanasius and banished Arius from the realm. Thus the belief of Trinity became the official religion of the empire.
Arianism (Monotheism) as an Official Faith: Fearful massacre of Christians (Arians) who did not believe in Trinity followed. It became a penal offence to possess a Bible not authorized by the Church and according to some estimates as many as 270 different versions of the Bible were burnt. Princess Constantina was not happy at the turn of events. The Emperor ultimately was persuaded to accept the faith of the men he killed. The result was that Arius was called back in 346 C.E. The day Arius was scheduled to visit the Cathedral of Constantinople in triumph, he died suddenly. The Church called it a miracle. The Emperor knew it was a murder. He banished Athanasius and two other Bishops. The Emperor then formally accepted Christianity and was baptized by an Arian Bishop. Thus Monotheism became the official religion. Constantine died in 337 C.E followed by Emperor Constantanius, he also accepted the faith of Arius (monotheism).
Monotheism Accepted as True Christian Faith:
Conference of Antioch: In 341 C.E. a Christian church council was held in Antioch (modern Antakya in southeastern Turkey) and Monotheism was accepted as a correct interpretation of Christian faith. This council was held on the occasion of the consecration of the emperor Constantine-I’s Golden Church there. It was the first of several 4th-century councils that attempted to replace orthodox Nicene theology with a modified Arianism. Attended by the Eastern emperor Constantius-II and about 100 bishops. The council developed four creeds as substitutes for the Nicene, all of them to some degree unorthodox and omitting or rejecting the Nicene statement that Christ was “of one substance” (homoousios) with the Father. The disciplinary 25 canons of Antioch are generally thought to have come from this council, but some scholars believe they were the work of an earlier council (330) at Antioch.
Council of Sirmium (351 C.E): This view was confirmed by another Council held in Sirmium in 351 C.E. As a result Arianism was accepted by an overwhelming majority of Christians. St. Jerome wrote in 359 C.E that ‘the whole world groaned and marveled to find itself Arian’. Indeed, for more than 40 years after the death of Constantine, Arianism continued to be the official orthodoxy of the Eastern Empire.
Arians Declined in Numbers but Survived: After Constantius’ death (361 C.E), the orthodox Christian majority (Trinitarians) in the West consolidated its position. The persecution of orthodox Christians conducted by the Arian emperor Valens (364-378 C.E) in the East and the success of Basil the Great of Caesarea, Gregory of Nyssa, and Gregory of Nazianzus led the Homoiousian majority in the East to toe the line of the Nicene party. When the emperors Gratian (367-383 C.E) and Theodosius-I (379-395 C.E) took up to favour orthodoxy, Arianism had to recede. In 381 C.E the second ecumenical (concerned with establishing or promoting unity among churches or religions.) council met at Constantinople. Arianism was proscribed, and a statement of faith, the Nicene Creed, was approved. However the basic doctrines of Arianism continue to survive and expand with different forms & names within Christianity and beyond. The Christianity; after brutally suppressing the internal resistance by monotheists (Arianis) to the complex doctrine of Trinity, expanded exponentially with the efforts of missionaries in Europe, Africa and later in Asia. The main reason was ‘good marketing’ by St.Paul, who ‘designed the product’ (Christianity) to make it attractive and acceptable for his initial clients (pagans) by blending the pagan doctrine with the monotheism preached by Jesus and his ancestor Abraham, applying the label of Christ. The Monotheists Christians like Arius despite initial successes were ultimately suppressed due to oppression and persecution. With emergence of Europeans as global colonial powers, Christianity got additional boost and it became a dominant religion of the world. With the revival of original true faith of Abraham (Islam) through the last Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) in seventh century C.E, all the false concepts stand fully exposed: “Truth has come and Falsehood perished: for Falsehood by its nature is bound to perish.”(Qur’an;17:81).
Khosrow II, king of Persia, launched an invasion; his troops captured Jerusalem in 614 C.E destroyed churches, and carried off the True Cross. In 628 the Byzantine emperor Hercules recovered Palestine, and he subsequently restored the True Cross to Jerusalem.
Change of Leadership role to The Children of Ishmael: God had made a Covenant with the prophets, specially mentioned are Moses and Jesus that: they (and by implication their followers) will believe and help the prophet to come (Muhammad, pbuh) whose signs were mentioned in their scriptures, which still exist in the Old Testament and New Testament [details mentioned here]. Due to their disobedience and continuous transgression, the Children of Israel proved them to be unworthy of leadership of mankind: “Remember that when Abraham was tested by his Lord with certain commands, he fulfilled them. God said: “Surely, I will make you the leader of mankind.” “What about my offspring?” Asked Abraham. “My Covenant,” said God, “will not apply to the evil doers.”(Qur’an;2:124). God in His wisdom and in fulfillment of His covenant with Abraham, shifted the ‘leadership of mankind’ form the Children of Israel to the Children of Ishmael by appointing Muhammad (peace be upon him) as His last Prophet (received first Revelation in 610 C.E, at cave Hira near Makkah) for the mankind till eternity. People with insight used their intellect to analyze the message. Jesus Christ had said: “Why don’t you judge for yourselves what is right?”(Luke;12:57). They recognized the Prophet already prophesized in their scriptures, hence some Jews and Christians believed in him while others were misguided their priests. Such people not only violated the covenant but transgressed. They are at loss by not believing in the Last Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) and the Last scripture, Qur’an.
Prior to his death Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), had invited the rulers of neighboring powers to Islam (Byzantine, Persians, and within Arabia) through epistles and emissaries but the response was negative. The world was much different from the present, wherein as per international law every human being is free to adopt and practice any faith, (at least in theory) but this was not the case at that time. The great Roman (Christian) and Persian (Zoroastrian) Empires were the biggest hindrances in conveying the message of Islam to their population. They were to be prevented from thrusting forcibly their disbelief upon their subjects and the future generations hence the conflict with them was inevitable. Due to death of Prophet (peace be upon him), this pending task was accomplished by his successors. Hence they were enjoined to subdue the non-Muslim powers to establish the sovereignty of the Islamic State. By the period of Caliph Omar bin Khattab (634-644 C.E), not only Arabia was purged of non believers but other areas as far as Afghanistan and Egypt were also brought under the folds of Muslim rule. Within few years after death of Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him), his devout followers brought major parts of neighboring empires under their influence as far as up to southern France, through Spain, central Asia, India to the Atlantic Ocean. Islamic rule and political influence continued to expand, in the intervening centuries. Jerusalem fell to Muslims (638 C.E). In 691 C.E Muslims rebuilt a Mosque (Dome of the Rock). The Jews were allowed to return by Muslims after their expulsion over 500 years. It changed hands between Christians and Muslims during Crusades till final eviction by Salhud-din-Ayoubi [Saladin] in 1187 C.E, Jerusalem remained under Muslim rule till 1917 , after the retreat of the Turks it was ruled under the British Mandate till 1948, then made part of Jordan. Israel was created by ejecting the Palestinian from their lands with full support of Christendom. In 1967 war Israel captured Jerusalem, later declared it as its indivisible capital against UN Resolutions. The Palestine have declared it as the capital of their state as and when it is established.
Renowned scholar Michael Hart, in his famous book, placed Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) at the top of the list of 100 most influential men in history of mankind. He comments that, Muhammad (peace be upon him) was the only man in history who was supremely successful on both the religious and secular levels. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) preached and promulgated one of the world’s great religion, and became an immensely effective political leader. The majority of influential men of history had the advantage of getting born and raised in centers of civilization, highly cultured or politically pivotal nations, while Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was born and raised at Mecca, the most remote and isolated corner of the world. He single-handedly accomplished the great mission with almost no means and resources. Prophet Muhammad (peace be upon him) was also an ideal leader who lead from front and left the land marks for the Muslims in all secular and spiritual spheres. He is the ideal seeker of spiritual perfection. Philosophers and statesman find a role model of both as conqueror of hearts and just ruler in him. The ordinary Muslims can find a model of reflection of God’s grace and salvation in him. He was an effective administrator, legislator, judge and military commander as well as teacher, preacher and prayer leader of the Muslim community.
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